Investment in Public Agricultural Research and Development — 2009-19

Investment-in-Public-Agricultural-Research-and-Development--2009-19-700.jpg

Notes: R&D spending is presented in constant 2015 purchasing power parity (PPP) dollars by first deflating by national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) price indexes and then converting into dollars using the 2015 PPP exchange rate, allowing for comparisons over time and across countries

Source: USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS) using data from the ERS data product Agricultural Research Funding in the Public and Private Sectors (U.S. expenditures); ERS Economic Research Report 249. Agricultural Research Investment

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